It’s a great program that goes to the heart of many issues confronting the Western World today.
In less than 100 years the once dominant Christian worldview has been gradually undermined and increasingly banished to the fringe of western culture. The Christian foundation has been replaced by godless socio-political ideologies openly hostile to belief in God and Christianity. It is incredible how this gradual transition from Christianity to godless Humanism was so seditiously and ingeniously achieved. It is truely one of the great epics of ideological warfare.
The organizers recognize the role that geological philosophy has played in changing the culture of the West, and that is why I’m presenting on geology.
My theme is “The Dating & Geological Guessing Game”, and in the presentation I’ll be showing why Genesis can be trusted. You will be amazed at the anti-biblical ideological assumptions behind geological interpretations and dating methods, and how these have affected our culture. Being informed is being equipped, and that will allow participants to respond appropriately to the challenges we see ourselves in.
There are other great presenters with time for interaction and discussion. Check the full list of speaker topics.
If you are concerned at the way things are going in your country and are looking for ways to change it, this will be a conference you won’t want to miss.
You can register on line or by phone. Find registration details toward bottom of page here.
The fragments are rounded and have been colonised by a marine micro-community. Scott Bryan, a researcher with the Queensland University of Technology has identified the pumice has carried barnacles, molluscs, anemones, bristle worms, hydroids and crabs. Algae are also growing on the pumice.
The pumice has travelled some 4,000 km from the Havre Seamount in the Kermadac Islands, which lie about 1000 km north of New Zealand. In July 2012, a volcano on that seamount erupted under the ocean, creating an enormous volume of pumice that floated on the ocean like a raft.
Soon after the eruption, a pumice raft was observed on the ocean in the area, a monstrous 500 km long and 50 km wide—about the size of Belgium. The top of the raft sat some 2 feet (0.6 m) above the water and appeared brilliant white in a spotlight, like the edge of an ice shelf.
Since the eruption, the raft has broken up and dispersed, and the pumice has travelled thousands of kilometres across the ocean.
This illustrates how a catastrophic event can produce material that will travel long distances.
It reminded me of the concept Gondwanaland.
Scientists have long recognized that the southern continents, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica and South America, have similar vegetation, referred to as Gondwana vegetation. To explain these similarities, most scientists say that the continents were once connected together into one supercontinent called Gondwanaland. During the Mesozoic this super-continent broke apart and the continental fragments carried the vegetation to different parts of the globe.
However, we can see from what happened to the pumice that there could be a simpler explanation, one that does not involve moving vast continents tens of thousands of kilometres. Instead, it simply needs to move the vegetation across the ocean.
Noah’s Flood was an unimaginably large global catastrophe, much larger than the eruption of the volcano on Havre Seamount. As a result of that catastrophe the vegetation that was growing on the pre-Flood continents was ripped up. Much of it would have floated in enormous rafts on the ocean, similar to the pumice raft, except for one big difference. The vegetation raft would have been much, much larger.
Here is the scenario. The vegetation on the southern continents is similar because similar vegetation was ripped up and floated across the southern ocean and was buried on the different continents. This vegetation was carried to the different continents, not by moving continents, but by moving ocean currents.
It’s an idea I think that’s worth exploring.
These provide an amazing glimpse of the attempts of the animals to escape the rising waters of Noah’s Flood.
The researchers, from the University of Alaska Museum of the North, found large and small footprints inside the Arctic Circle on an 800 km expedition down the Tanana and Yukon rivers. They brought back 900 kg of fosillized dinosaur footprints.
Researcher Paul McCarthy, of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, said the footprints were abundant: “We found dinosaur footprints by the scores on literally every outcrop we stopped at.” This is certainly represents unusual behaviour and unique conditions that were present at the time.
Preserved in strata classified as Cretaceous, the dino prints were described as ‘natural casts’ formed after the creatures stepped in mud, and sand filled in their footprints. Crew member Pat Druckenmiller said this resulted in fossils that look like “blobs with toes.”
It’s clear that the prints were preserved in most unusual conditions. There could not have been much time between the animal stepping in the mud and the sand filling in the depression, otherwise the print would have eroded away. And the thickness of the strata indicate that the water level was rising, allowing space for more sediment to be deposited on top.
Footprints like this are classic evidence for the Inundatory stage of Noah’s Flood, in particular the period as the waters were approaching their peak (here’s another example from China). It is clear that the animals were still alive, so the waters had not completely covered the earth. Once the earth was inundated, all land-dwelling, air-breathing animals perished.
Every living thing that moved on the earth perished—birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died. Genesis 7:21–22.
Dubbed The Tamu Massif it is located about 1,600 km (1,000 miles) east of Japan, and is the largest feature of an underwater mountain range called Shatsky Rise.
Reports drew attention to the unusual shape of the huge lava deposit. The volcano is low and broad, a shield volcano. Most other volcanoes that erupt under the ocean are small with steep sides. The seafloor is dotted with thousands of such steep-sided underwater volcanoes, or seamounts.
The broad, flat shape means that the lava erupted at an enormous rate such that it travelled rapidly across the ocean floor as a fluid over long distances, before it was cooled sufficiently by the seawater such that it began to solidify and become viscous.
The volcano is ‘dated’ at 145 million years according to uniformitarian philosophy. This timing is based on the idea that everything happened slowly and gradually, and that the Noah’s Flood catastrophe never happened.
So we have to reinterpret these ‘dates’ that geologists have assigned. 145 million years equates to about halfway through the Flood. The Flood occurred about 4,500 years ago. Most of the rocks exposed on earth were deposited during the Flood, which was an enormous catastrophic event, which means everything happened quickly (not over millions of years).
Some idea of this timing can be estimated from the timing of faulting on the edges of the continents, such as in south-west Western Australia. The geology suggests that the break-up of the continents and the opening of the ocean basins began somewhere around the Early Cretaceous. (A similar picture can be seen in Africa.) If the relative timing the scientists assigned to the Tamu Massif correlates with the geology of Western Australia (which it probably doesn’t exactly across such large distances), it would mean the massif was emplaced around the time the ocean basins were opening up and deepening prior to receiving the waters from off the continents.
This volcanic eruption was one of many similar eruptions all over the planet at this time as the oceans were opening up. The volume of lava emplaced during these eruptions was enormous, and they are called Large Igneous Provinces, or LIPs for short.
The eruptions for the Tamu Massif took place underwater and the volcano is still under water. However, even the LIPs that are now on land would have erupted underwater at that time during the Flood.
The rate at which lava spewed from beneath the earth was so rapid that the Tamu Massif formed a very flat shape, not a steep shape as occurs for undersea eruptions today. Its shape is similar to the shape of the Columbia River Basalts (See article Field Studies in Columbia River Basalts), which also erupted at around this time (broadly speaking). The Columbia River Basalts display evidence for very rapid emplacement. Deposits such as the Columbia River Basalts are often called ‘continental basalts’ but this field study indicates that is a misnomer. They erupted underwater.
It is interesting that the researchers recognize that the eruption of the volcano was a hugely catastrophic event. Sager said:
The bottom line is that we think that Tamu Massif was built in a short (geologically speaking) time of one to several million years and it has been extinct since.
Catastrophic events do not take much time, which is what we would expect from Noah’s Flood. And it would have been a lot quicker than Sager imagined—emplaced in days.
There was another feature about the volcano that puzzled the researchers. Sager again:
One interesting angle is that there were lots of oceanic plateaus (that) erupted during the Cretaceous Period (145–65 million years ago) but we don’t see them since. Scientists would like to know why.
There is a simple reason why these eruptions only took take place in one period of earth history and we don’t see them since. The volcanos erupted as the ocean basins opened up during Noah’s Flood. As the basins began to open they began to receive the floodwaters that were covering the continents. It was a one-off event, contradicting the usual (but erroneous) geological assumption that the present is the key to the past. It happened just once and it won’t happen again.
If these scientists who are so puzzled would read their Bibles and take what they read seriously it would all make sense. They would see that God said this:
I establish my covenant with you: Never again will all life be cut off by the waters of a flood; never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth. Genesis 9:11
Message for William Sager at Texas A&M University: Noah’s Flood is the answer to your puzzle. The eruptions occurred about halfway through Noah’s Flood, which was a one-off, non-repeatable event. Now you know why.
We use Oard’s estimate for the timing of the post-Flood Ice Age (see figure 9 on the article about Banks Peninsula). He estimated it took 500 years for the Ice Age to reach its maximum after the Flood, and 200 years for the ice to melt back at the end of the Ice Age maximum.
If we take the Flood at 4500 years ago (approximately) then the Ice Age maximum would be about 4000 years ago and the current sea levels were reached about 3800 years ago. On the Wikipedia image, therefore, we equate the last glacial maximum (22 ka ago) to the biblical age of 4,000 years ago. And we tie the point on the graph where sea level reached present level (7 ka ago) to the biblical age of 3800 years ago. This is a very tight compression of time in this 200 year period.When we do this we obtain the calibration factor shown in the second figure as a function of uniformitarian ‘age’. This calibration curve likely reflects the sorts of adjustments that would need to be made to carbon-14 ‘dates’ in order to obtain actual dates. While this is a general calibration curve, I would anticipate there to be temporal and regional anomalies. The ‘ages’ connected with the sea-level curve shown on Wikepedia are most likely to have been measured by carbon-14 method, and that can be affected by many factors, including the revegetation after the Flood, volcanism, and changes to the magnetic field of the earth. I also suspect the melting of the ice sheets on the continents had some effect. (See What about carbon dating?)
The third figure allows us to read off the biblical age for the post-glacial-maximum period when we have the uniformitarian age.What we have done is arbitrarily adjusted the results to fit in with what we consider to be the reliable ages based on the historical reports in the Bible. Some may claim this is circular reasoning, and it is, or that I have massaged the figures to get the answer I want, and I have. However, that is the way that all dating methods work. The researcher will do the measurements and calculations to work out the ‘age’. They will then compare this with what they think it should be. And when it does not agree they will work out a way of adjusting the figures to get what they want.
This is actually what has been done with carbon-14 in that the results did not agree with other methods so there has been a calibration curve produced to make the results match with what they expect it to be. What I have done here is no different. I have matched the results with some of the points that I consider can be established with some degree of reliability.
This is a ‘back of the envelope’ calculation provides an initial estimate for the sorts of corrections that need to be made, but we would need to consult more reliable sources and obtain other information in order to refine and test the curve. As we consider the form of the calibration function it will help us explore the sorts of factors that may be affecting the carbon-14 ratio in the atmosphere in the past, and develop research projects to explore these effects.
Fossils cannot speak for themselves so Prof. Suzanne Miller, Chief Executive of the Queensland Museum, spoke on behalf of the fossils. She addressed the Channel 10 camera on site where the fossils were displayed, and gave a good interview. It’s available within an article by Brisbane News correspondent Tony Moore entitled, Fossils offer glimpse at our own future.
Suzanne explains the significance of the find by retelling relevant parts of the grand evolutionary meta-narrative. By putting the fossils into the evolutionary story the bones of the fish and frogs suddenly become newsworthy.
But the same evidence can be placed within a different story—one framed by biblical history, and that makes the find even more interesting.
So there are two ways of looking at this fossil find, and it is good practice to look at the evidence from both perspectives. We can look via evolution, the story about the past invented by people who were not there, invented so that they can explain the evidence in the present. Or we can look via biblical history, the account of the past observed by people who were present at the time, and passed down to us through written record. This history allows us to make sense of the evidence.
If I had been speaking to the cameras at Geebung I would have presented the find from a different perspective. I’ve presented here what I would say, interspersed within a transcript of Suzanne’s speech
Suzanne: This is an incredible find for Queensland, for Australia and really for this local community. This is also unique to science, to find this variety of plants and animals that were all alive and co-existing 50 million years ago is phenomenal.
Tasman: This is an incredible find for Queensland, for Australia and really for this local community. The remarkable fossils add to the array of similar fossils recovered, over the last 50 years, from related basins on the south of the Brisbane River. These fossils are a sample of the plants and animals overwhelmed and buried in the global devastation that overtook the earth 4,500 years ago.
Suzanne: It will put Geebung on the map. Geologically around the world there will be a lot of international interest in these fossils that have been found, after the extinction that killed off all the dinosaurs.
Tasman: It will put Geebung on the map. Geologically there will be a lot of international interest in these fossils … which were buried long after the floodwaters had overwhelmed the dinosaurs and other air-breathing animals not on Noah’s Ark—animals whose fossils are routinely unearthed in Central Queensland. These are sobering finds.
Suzanne: And it really is a bit of a missing gap in the scientific record about how animals evolved after that massive extinction that killed off the majority of animals on the planet.
Tasman: These fossils follow a large sedimentary gap. They were buried after an extended period of erosion on the continents caused by receding Floodwaters. These flowed a kilometre deep across the Main Range to the west, and covered the Brisbane Valley as they flowed out to sea around here. That erosion created the vast sedimentary gap, when nothing was deposited on the continents. It only ended when the floodwaters had mostly receded, and conditions eased enough for these sediments to deposit.
Suzanne: And this is a snapshot back in time 50 million years ago when this was tropical rainforest much warmer and wetter than it is today to a time period that we really know very little about. There is nowhere else that has this variety of material some really exciting stuff to come out.
Tasman: This is a snapshot of a unique period of earth history 4,500 years ago, when material was deposited toward the tail end of the Flood like this.
Suzanne: And we have just got the tip of the iceberg. In the whole of north Australia this is absolutely unique and depending on what we find because we are just at the beginning of this project, depending on what we find this could be unique in the world. This could be some of the earliest mammals ever found.
Tasman: And we have just got the tip of the iceberg. It’s unique because the waters of the Flood affected different parts of Australia in different ways: Carnarvon Gorge different from Townsville area; Townsville different from Brisbane; different animals responded with different behaviours. The whole of the continent is a massive research project for understanding the Flood catastrophe.
Suzanne: We’ve got different kinds of plant and pollen which is incredibly important, really unusual and very often … bones are more easy to preserve than plants and pollen they tend to disintegrate over time.
Tasman: We have some delicate plant and pollen which is an important indicator of how quickly things were buried.
Suzanne: So we have got the whole range from an ecosystem, we’ve got a number of plants and pollen, we’ve certainly got fish, different kinds of possibly freshwater fish, something like a perch. There is a frog what we believe to be the leg bone of a frog. There is shell material. But this is just the beginning.
Tasman: We have a mixture of different plants and animals: fish, frogs, plants and shells. These were thrown together in the transient environment of the Flood, the tail end of which spanned just a few months. We have scanty evidence about this period and these fossils will allow us understand a bit more about what happened during that once-in-an-earth-time event.
Suzanne: This material has only just been found literally in the last few weeks. So there is a huge amount of work to do.
Tasman: This material has only just been found literally in the last few weeks. So there is a huge amount of work to do.
So, by changing a few words and sentences we can present the same evidence but within a different perspective. It totally changes our view of world and our place in it. Also, it is exciting to see the potential the new fossil find at Geebung brings, and appreciate how the biblical Flood explains it so well: its timing, its ‘environment’ and its preservation.
This paper published by two openly creationist researchers Robert Carter and John Sanford demonstrates that point. It was published in the journal Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling (9:42, 12 October 2012) and is entitled “A new look at an old virus: patterns of mutation accumulation in the human H1N1 influenza virus since 1918″. Pdf is available here.
It turns out that there has been great interest in the paper such that the publisher has permanently flagged the article “highly accessed” prior to the release of the finalized pdf.
The authors wanted to wait for at least 6 months before openly discussing their findings within the creationist community. Now that the time has passed they are ready to promote their work.
When you look at the article you will see that the authors are:
• Stating that their pet theory called “genetic entropy” works in the real world.
• Providing data that more than suggests that influenza viruses cannot survive long-term.
• Claiming they were the first to notice the 2009 extinction of the human H1N1 influenza virus.
• Suggesting that government agencies are barking up the wrong tree.
About the paper author Robert Carter said:
While it is not stated openly in the paper, if you “read between the lines” you will see:
• This is the first experiment designed to test the Darwinian mutation/selection model in any species over tens of thousands of generations. All other experiments (even Lenski) used many fewer generations and/or assumed common ancestry (e.g., anything written about the chimpanzee genome) without actually testing it.
• Despite pervasive natural selection, the human 1918 H1N1 went extinct, twice, due to mutation accumulation. The second time after more than 10% of its genome ‘rusted away’.
• Accumulating mutations are not silent, even those that do not affect the amino acid chain of a protein, because codon usage still influences translation. Unchecked mutation accumulation leads to a breakdown in codon bias.
• Being that the various mutation types accumulated in a linear fashion, those mutations that escaped the selective filter (that would be most of the mutations) are accumulating according to the laws of chemistry. Thus, genetic change is a product of thermodynamics. Thus, the direction of evolutionary change is predetermined. Thus, if the common ancestor of things like humans and chimpanzees is not “on the curve”, they do not have a common ancestor.
The paper is certainly worth the read. Feel free to forward this information.
Reader Paul G asks:
On your thread about the GSA and evidence for the Flood in the Appalachians, I was intrigued by a couple of sentences:
“When they speak of 200 million years it’s getting toward the middle of the Flood. When they say 15 million years it is toward the end. And 4 million years is around the beginning of the post-Flood period.”
Could you point me to additional resources that discuss the correspondence between “standard” geology’s dating and flood geology dating?
Tas Walker responds:
This article by Mike Oard discusses some aspects of the correspondence between biblical geology and the geologic column. His conclusion is a good summary:
“Comparing Walker’s model to the geological column reveals several surprises. First, sedimentary rocks labeled Precambrian (if from the Flood), Paleozoic, and Mesozoic strata are early Flood. Second, Cenozoic strata can be early Flood, late Flood or post-Flood depending upon the location and the particular fossil used to define the Cenozoic. Third, Flood deposition is highly nonlinear with a large percentage of strata deposited early in the Flood.”
You can get an idea for how it works by looking at geological histories from a biblical perspective that I have published for different areas. This one for the Brisbane area has a chart that shows the correspondence between the standard geologic column and biblical history.
You will see that they all show a similar pattern.
You can also search creation.com for articles on the following topics: “post-Flood boundary” and “pre-Flood boundary”. You will see that there is considerable discussion on this issue.
In summary, there is a general order. Most of the standard column is a consequence of the Flood. The lower rocks are early Flood and the upper rocks are Late Flood. The top of the Cretaceous represents the peaking of the floodwaters (more or less). The Tertiary is a period of erosion as the floodwaters receded. The uppermost Quaternary is post-Flood. These are generalities and the details will vary from place to place, depending on how the ’standard’ geologists have classified the rocks into the geological column. So, you have to consider the geology of each local area that you are interested in.
It is important to appreciate that the diagram of the column is a hypothetical composite assembled by multitude of data from all over the world using a long-age philosophy. So, you should not just accept the way things are classified in a particular location on earth without question. ‘Standard’ geologists don’t. The column is extremely useful as a first pass, but you have to examine geological maps and cross sections, consider documented descriptions of the geological units, and check Google Earth in order to better appreciate what processes occurred and their timing.
A piling rig recovered the fossils from a layer of oil shale some 15 m underground and dumped them in a spoil heap, where they were noticed.
The fossils were within an area of sedimentary deposits that geologists have called the Petrie Formation. These cover an area of some 50 km3 north of the mouth of the Brisbane River.
The Petrie Formation is one of a number of Tertiary basins in the Brisbane area, which include the Booval and Oxley Groups south of the Brisbane River. These basins consist of a mixture of different types of rock, including mudstone, shale, and sandstone, as well as limestone and brown coal.2 The basins also contain basalt flows that were deposited from volcanoes.
Crocodile remains have long been known from the Oxley Group sediments, which also contain fossils of turtles, fish, branchiopods (crustaceans), freshwater mussels, and leaves of flowering plants.2 These basins are some of the last sedimentary structures to be deposited in the area. They sit on top of some enormous geological structures, such as the sediments of the Great Artesian Basins, the Ipswich Basin, and the folded rocks of the New England Fold Belt.
Because these basins are so late in the geological sequence, and because of the sorts of fossils found in them, geologists have assigned them to the Lower Tertiary (this is now known as the Paleogene). This is why the fossils were said to be 50 million years old, according to mainstream geological philosophy. In other words, just because they dug the fossils out of the sediments of the Petrie Formation they said the fossils were 50 million years old.
However, the geology of eastern Australia is well explained by the events of Noah’s Flood. Although this event is ignored by mainstream geologists there is much evidence that the Flood was a real event in recent earth history. Various geological units of eastern Australia have already been classified within this event.
The rocks comprising the New England Fold belt have been determined to have formed early in the first ‘half’ of the Flood when the waters were rising, during the Ascending phase.3 The rocks comprising the Great Artesian Basin were found to have been deposited later in the first ‘half’ of the Flood, as the waters were reaching their peak.4 The entire geological history of South-east Queensland has been interpreted within this geological framework.5
The Petrie Formation was deposited very late in the Flood for the following reasons:
The Petrie Formation overlies the rocks of the New England Fold Belt.6 So it is younger than these.
The Petrie Formation overlies the rocks of the Great Artesian Basin.7 So is also younger than these.
The underlying rocks (New England Fold Belt and the Great Artesian Basin) have been greatly eroded. This occurred as the waters of Noah’s Flood were receding from the continent of Australia as the ocean basins opened up and deepened. In other words, the Petrie Formation was deposited after most of the floodwaters had receded.
The Petrie Formation and the associated Oxley and Booval Groups are quite extensive. It is thought that the Petrie Formation is continuous with the Oxley Group under the Brisbane River.2 In other words, although the area covered is much smaller than the area of the early Flood sediments, it is still quite large geographically compared with what we see happening in the modern world. This suggests that deposition was not post-Flood but occurred during the Flood when there was much more water involved.
The sediments are estimated to be up to 320 m thick as estimated from composite sections.2 This is thick, compared with modern sediments, suggesting they were not deposited post-Flood but during the Flood.
The sediments tend to sit at higher elevations. They have been significantly eroded since deposition and the present drainage follows the pattern set up by this erosion. Such erosion is not expected by the normal erosive processes we see happening after the Flood. The erosion suggests there was more water involved, and points to the late state of the Flood.
Much organic material is present in the sediments in the form of brown coal and oil shale, indicating contemporaneous deposition of vegetation and sediment. The Flood ripped up the pre-Flood vegetation and buried much of it to form vast coal deposits. The presence of this brown coal and oil shale suggests that deposition occurred during the Flood.
So the fossils found at Geebung were buried in the late stages of Noah’s Flood after the majority of water had already drained from the continent of Australia. It is instructive to read this careful record that we have of what happened on the earth in those months as the water was draining from the Geebung area north of Brisbane some 4,500 years ago:
After forty days Noah opened the window he had made in the ark and sent out a raven, and it kept flying back and forth until the water had dried up from the earth.
Then he sent out a dove to see if the water had receded from the surface of the ground. But the dove could find no place to set its feet because there was water over all the surface of the earth; so it returned to Noah in the ark. He reached out his hand and took the dove and brought it back to himself in the ark. He waited seven more days and again sent out the dove from the ark. When the dove returned to him in the evening, there in its beak was a freshly plucked olive leaf! Then Noah knew that the water had receded from the earth. He waited seven more days and sent the dove out again, but this time it did not return to him.
By the first day of the first month of Noah’s six hundred and first year, the water had dried up from the earth. Noah then removed the covering from the ark and saw that the surface of the ground was dry. By the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth was completely dry. (Genesis 8:6–14)
The latest fossils discovered at Geebung provide more evidence for the events of Noah’s Flood. The remains of the crocodiles, frogs, fish, shells and plants, were buried during its final stages—the Dispersive phase after most of the floodwaters had drained from the earth. They were deposited after the really energetic phase that eroded the present landscapes had passed. These sediments were deposited in large bodies of water that quickly filled with sediment deposited from large rivers draining the last water from the global Flood. These sediments were then eroded as by those large-volume water flows as the sea level continued to fall.
References and Notes
Ironside, R., Construction work in Brisbane suburb Geebung unearths fossils of 50-million year-old crocodiles, fish and plants, The Courier-Mail, July 16, 2013.
Cranfield, L.C., Schwarzbock, H., and Day, R.W., Geology of the Ipswich and Brisbane 1:250000 Sheet Areas, Report No. 95, Geological Survey of Queensland, Table 3, p.68, 1976.
Walker, T.B., The basement rocks of the Brisbane area, Australia: Where do they fit in the creation model? Journal of Creation 10(2):241–257, 1996. In this paper application of classification criteria eliminated all phases in the biblical model except the Eruptive and Ascending phases. The paper concludes by classifying the basement rocks as Eruptive, but I would now consider they should be assigned to the Ascending phase.
Walker, T.B., The Great Artesian Basin, Australia, Journal of Creation 10(3):379–390, 1996;
Walker, T., The Geological History of the Brisbane area, Australia, from a biblical Flood perspective, 2005.
Ref. 2. The Petrie Formation overlies the Palaeozoic Rocksberg Greenstone, Bunya Phyllite, and Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds.
Ref. 2. The Petrie Formation overlies the Triassic to Jurassic Woogaroo Subgroup and the Jurassic Marburg formation.
Recently, I received the following interesting and encouraging message from K.A. in Northern Ireland:
About 9 months ago, I received a phone call from a man I had visited in one of the counties here about 5 or 6 years previously. He has a stone cutting and polishing business. At the time I wanted some samples of fossils trapped in rock, as I was teaching through Genesis at church. He gave me some lovely samples with fossils trapped in the local marble and other stone.
He took me into his sales room, showed me his marketing literature, and gave me his business card. I noticed that he stated on them both that the rock he supplied had formed many millions of years ago. I asked if he would like me to tell him an alternative version of how they were formed. He said yes and listened respectfully to my recounting the ‘literal’ Genesis version of creation and the Flood.
During his unexpected phone call he told me that for about 4 years he couldn’t get what I had said to him that day out of his mind. He began to read the Bible, came to faith, joined a church, and now runs a youth club in it! The kids have started to ask him questions about creation and evolution and he thought he would ring me to get good sources of information. He has since set up a library of books and tapes in the church (some of which I gave him) and has visited me with more fossil samples.
He has also changed his business literature!
It’s good to see the truth about Noah’s Flood and the Word of God gradually spreading.