I like to feature this journal on this blog for a number of reasons. First, it alerts you to where you can get peer-reviewed information on biblical geology. Second, it shows that biblical geology is not a one-man, hobby-horse, but it is a broad movement being researched and developed by a network of qualified scientists around the world. Third, I want you to become informed and motivated so that you too will see the importance and potential of biblical geology and take steps to become better informed. And fourth, I would like people like you to subscribe to this journal so that the research grows and becomes strong.
Here is a sampling of the geology articles in the latest issue.
- Desert varnish grows much faster than geologists admit
Measurement based on lead from nearby smelters has turned the time beliefs about desert varnish on their head.
- Fossilized insect shows signs of stasis and rapid burial
Remarkable implications from the discovery of finely preserved froghopper fossils.
- Precambrian rabbits—death knell for evolution?
What type of evidence would it really take to falsify evolution?
- The meaning of the Great Unconformity and Sauk Megasequence
These continental features can only be explained by large-scale, catastrophic processes.
- Tetrapods from fish?
A review of Gaining Ground: The Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods by Jennifer A. Clack.
- Darwin’s dirty fossil secret
A review of Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design by Stephen C. Meyer.
- Has Mars undergone one or more RATE episodes?
The sudden heating of the crust due to accelerated decay would produce vast areas of hot subsurface magmas and surface volcanism.
- Perth area, Western Australia—Recessive stage of Flood began in the mid-Cretaceous and eroded kilometres of sediment from the continent
Flood timing can be connected to regional geology using published geological cross sections and other geological data.
- Relating the Lava Creek Ash to the post-Flood boundary
Two useful criteria to help determine the location of the Flood/post-Flood boundary for any specific area.
- Solar activity, cold European winters, and the Little Ice Age
Charge modulation of aerosol scavenging helps our understanding of the post-Flood Ice Age, and the ‘global warming’ issue.
There is a lot of really interesting reading in this issue, as there always is. It’s a journal for people who want a bit more meat, and to see what creation scientists are discussiong and debating. It’s excellent for academics and researchers. I find it amazing that the issues discussed here in Journal of Creation reappear in mainstream scientific journals a few years later. I think there are many people reading this journal who may not say so publically.
These whales are one of the most remarkable finds of fossils whales found in recent years. A whole graveyard was found in 2010 as a highway was being widened, and since then they have been carefully excavated and documented.
This find is a graphic evidence of the destructive effects of the global Flood of Noah’s day. I reported a detailed analysis of the depositional setting for the whale fossils using a biblical geological interpretive framework and concluded they were buried as the floodwaters were receding from the South American continent. That was as the continents of the world were rising and the ocean basins were sinking.
The evidence for this is set out in detail in the article “80 whales buried mysteriously in Chilean desert: Marine graveyard is evidence for Noah’s Flood.”
This evidence for such an enormous mass kill of such large animals is a problem for researchers who do not believe in Noah’s Flood.2 Their problem is that they are trying to explain the find by processes that we see happening in the present. The difficulty is that we do not see scores of whales dying at sea and being buried on the land in mass graveyards, and slowly covered by sediment over thousands of years. With their long-age geological framework of thinking they are faced with multiple problems: how to kill all those whales and other creatures found, how to bury them quickly before their remains disintegrate and they are scavenged and decay, and how to put them in the desert in Chile far above sea level. With their geological philosophy they are prohibited from invoking any processes with any hint of biblical proportions.
The latest attempt published in the Royal-Society paper suggests that the whales perished in a harmful algal bloom (which they dub HAB) and were deposited in a supratidal flat. They invoke the algal bloom to try to explain the range of different kinds of fossils found dead and buried at the site. They invoke the supratidal flat to try to explain how so many whales were preserved in a pristine condition for the long period of time necessary to cover them so they did not rot away.
The authors say that the “carcasses were buried under a relatively continuous rate of fine sediments”. How long is it going to take to bury a graveyard of whales by such a slow process? How could the carcases be preserved so long?
The fossil graveyard is a most unusual and unexpected discovery. It does not fit the normal sorts of environments that we see on the earth today. That is why they need to invoke such an implausible environment to explain what they find. But, they also have a problem with time because they imagine, within their worldview, that all this took vast amounts of time—perhaps multiple millions of years. So, not only do they invoke one farfetched scenario, they need to invoke it multiple times over millions of years in order to make it stretch over the long ages that they need.
However, these whales perished late in Noah’s Flood and were buried as the floodwaters were receding, during a period of rapid sedimentation. This simple scenario explains the evidence elegantly.
The whales may well have perished in an algal bloom, although there does not appear to be significant direct evidence of this at the excavation site. There was an earlier find of a whale graveyard in South America by geologists from Loma Linda University where there is direct evidence that whales were buried in a bloom situation. (See Dead whales telling tales.)
If it was an algal bloom then it would have occurred during the Flood. It would have been one algal bloom that occurred quickly, and not multiple repeated blooms that re-occurred over a period of thousands or millions of years in the same place.
From the analysis presented in multiple articles on this biblical-geology site,3 the evidence suggests that the peaking of the floodwaters occurred somewhere around the top of the Cretaceous (this could vary slightly from place to place around the world, but it is generally around that area). By this time, at the mid-point of the Flood, the oceans were much warmer (due to all the volcanic activity) and they were rich in nutrients (due to the rotting remains of plants and animals that perished in the Flood). These conditions were ripe for producing widespread algal blooms, and rapid multiplication of all sorts of tiny marine organisms. These conditions seem to explain such phenomena as the vast chalk deposits that cover Cretaceous Europe (such as the White Cliffs of Dover). These whales were buried after the peak as the floodwaters were receding from the continent.
The paltry attempt by long-age geologists to explain the fossils by repeated algal blooms and slow burial are wholly inadequate to account for the catastrophic environment that the fossils preserve. They perished in one event just after the peak of Noah’s Food, and were buried quickly after they died. These whales found buried upside-down in the desert of Chile are one of the most remarkable fossils graveyards discovered in recent years, and provide a graphic picture of the devastation brought upon the earth by the judgment of Noah’s Flood.
Nicholas D. Pyenson, Carolina S. Gutstein, James F. Parham, Jacobus P. Le Roux, Catalina Carreño Chavarría, Holly Little, Adam Metallo, Vincent Rossi, Ana M. Valenzuela-Toro, Jorge Velez-Juarbe, Cara M. Santelli, David Rubilar Rogers, Mario A. Cozzuol, and Mario E. Suárez, Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea, Proc. R. Soc. B vol. 281, no. 1781, 22 April 2014. Published 26 February 2014 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3316
The large team of researchers included four from Chile, and one from Brazil. Chile has a Christian population greater than 85% and only a small non-religious population of less than 15% (http://www.operationworld.org/chil). I would not be surprised if one or two people on the team actually believed that Noah’s Flood was a real event. However, they likely would not be able to admit this to fellow team members. Especially their paper could not include any hint of a reference to Noah’s Flood or it would not even make it to peer review. So, they have all had to go through the motions of trying to find a modern environment to explain the remarkable find.
Some articles that connect the geological column to the timing of the Flood are:
The Great Artesian Basin
Perth geological section, breakup of Gondwana, and the draining of Noah’s Flood
Geologists see effects of Noah’s Flood in Africa
The purple area represents the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds, which cover a large part of the map and are visible in rock outcrops (figure 2) and road cuts on the Gold Coast. A number of different kinds of rocks make up the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds but geologists have lumped them together under the same name because they are pushed around, tipped up, mixed up, and not clear how they all connect together. The different kinds of rocks include: sandstone, mudstone, altered basalt, and beds of crystallized silica called chert.On the cross-section, the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds sit at the bottom forming the ‘basement’. There are wiggly lines drawn on the beds indicating that the beds have been folded and pushed around. They form part of a huge area of folded rocks called the New England Fold Belt, which extends from around Newcastle in New South Wales to Townsville in North Queensland (see map here).
These rocks were deposited early in the Flood, likely the Ascending phase as the waters were rising. They were folded soon afterward likely due to movements in the earth’s crust as the Flood progressed (see Basement rocks of the Brisbane area).
The Chillingham volcanic were deposited on top of the folded beds. It would appear that the volcanic eruptions were related to the intense energy and movement of the folding itself. It is common for granitic intrusions and volcanic eruptions to be connected with large structural deformations of the earth’s crust, which geologists have dubbed orogenies.
After this major crustal movement, intense sedimentation resumed as the floodwaters continued to rise, moving back and forth across the earth, perhaps the way the water moves back and forth across the beach due to the waves, swells and currents as the tide comes in.
First the sediments of the Ipswich Basin were deposited, and then the sediments of the enormous basins connected with the Great Artesian Basin: the Woogaroo Subgroup, the Marburg Formation, and the Walloon Coal Measures. These sediments can be traced to the Northern Territory and South Australia. Eventually every high mountain under the entire heavens was covered, as the account in Genesis says.
After the floodwaters peaked the ocean basins began to sink (an event geologists recognize and describe as the breakup of Gondwana), and the floodwater drained from the continent into the ocean. This was a period of intense erosion on the continents. This erosion can be seen on the cross section, with the thick sedimentary deposits east of Canungra having been removed (see also figure 2).
As the energy of the receding floodwaters waned, sedimentation once again was possible on the continent, depositing in localized ‘lakes’—areas of water that temporarily ponded as the water drained. The Beauderset Beds on this geological map are small, localized basins that appear to have been deposited at this time, after the floodwaters were almost fully drained (see discussion on similar basins where fossils were found at Geebung, Brisbane).
As the ocean basins continued to sink and the floodwaters continued to recede, there were immense volcanic eruptions of basaltic magma from volcanoes along the coast, including the Tweed Volcano centred on Mount Warning. The lava that flowed from the vent covered a large area forming a shield volcano, and part of this shield is visible on the map, shown in red (figure 1). On the cross section it can be seen that the lava sits on top of the folded Neranleigh Fernvale Beds as well as on top of the sediments of the Ipswich and Great Artesian Basins. This gives an idea for the timing of the eruption in relation to the receding of the floodwaters. It can also be seen that the lava flows have been severely dissected leaving erosional remnants unconnected with the main flows, such as the remnant at Coolangatta and Tamborine. This erosion also gives a clue for the timing of the volcanic eruptions with respect to the receding floodwaters.
After the Flood, sea level changes during and after the post-Flood Ice Age allowed for localized deposition of alluvium and coastal sediments (figure 1) connected with post-Flood coastal processes.
Geological maps and cross sections such as these are a great tool to help us understand the geological history of the area. With the aid of the biblical geological model they allow us to connect these geological events with the history of the world as recorded in the Bible.
The volcanic eruption of Mt Warning was part of a larger sequence of volcanic eruptions that have left plugs and basalt plateaus all along the eastern coast of Australia from north to south. These eruptions were likely the consequence of the floor of the Pacific Ocean sinking relative to the Australian continent in the second half of the Noah’s Flood, creating space to receive the floodwaters that were covering the whole landscape.Google maps (figure 2) provides a good view of the present landscape around the volcano. (It covers an area 100 km wide and 70 km high.) As Mt Warning was erupting, it delivered black basaltic lava to the land surface (likely under water) at an enormous rate, lava that flowed at least 30 km in all directions away from the vent. You can see the extent of the lava flows on the map, as they radiate from the centre like long thin branches.
Once the eruptions ended, the central basaltic shield was incredibly eroded, leaving a steep cliff running in a circle around the central plug, at a distance of about 15 km. Between the escarpment and the plug, an undulating, doughnut-shaped area has been left surrounding the plug, an area that is fertile and used for growing sugar cane. It’s also a popular tourist area.
There are a number of interesting features about this landform connected with Mount Warning that are nicely explained by the events of Noah’s Flood:
In spite of the erosion that has occurred, the shield shape of the volcano and its central core are still basically preserved. This helps work out the timing of the eruption. It must have occurred after the intensive, erosive phase of the receding floodwaters had passed.
But, because such a large volume of material has been eroded, the waters of Noah’s Flood must still have had lots of erosive potential remaining. They likely covered the area to a significant extent and were able to accomplish significant erosion as they drained the continent and receded into the ocean.
The area around the central core that has been eroded away is much larger than the size of the Tweed River that flows through the area and out to sea to the north-east. This is a classic example of an overfit valley, where the valley is much larger than the dimensions of the river within it. This is not the sort of erosive landscape that would be produced over millions of years by the small rivers that drain the area at present.
The circular escarpments of the shield that surround the eroded central doughnut landscape are sharp and steep indicating that the erosion was recent. If the erosion had occurred over millions of years there would not be steep escarpments as we see.
The circular escarpment has been eroded away in two places indicated by the arrows on figure 2. These gaps are a tell-tale signature of the receding waters of Noah’s Flood. The water was likely quite deep over the landscape and flowed in the direction of the arrows as it receded into the ocean. The escarpment in the areas near the arrows was likely a little lower than the other parts of the shield, so more water flowed in these areas, eroding these sections. As the ocean level dropped the water continued to flow through these areas creating the gaps. The wide gap to the north is a water gap, with the waters of the Tweed River flowing through the area. The Tweed River is much smaller than the gap that has been eroded away. The gap to the south could be called an air gap because water does not flow through the area. Rather, at the rim there is a watershed, with streams now flowing north and south from the rim area.
These are some of the features of the Mount Warning shield volcano that visually point to the reality of the biblical Flood. Once you can see the sorts of features that Noah’s Flood produced, and what they look like in a landscape, you can see features like them everywhere because the Flood was a global event.
The curved stratum next to my leg, about 50 cm thick, is composed of sandstone and interpreted to have been deposited as a turbidite—an underwater sediment-rich, turbulence deposit.1 This particular one involved a lot of sand and would have covered a large area.
These turbidites were deposited as the waters of Noah’s Flood were rising, during the Ascending phase of the Flood. It’s likely they were deposited one after the other in quick succession, and all folded soon afterwards, within days or weeks, based on the timing of the sequence of events that took place during the Flood, as documented in Genesis 6 to 9.
- Here is a good video of what turbidites look like.
The gold in the area formed during Noah’s Flood, and the geology of the area is nicely explained using the biblical Flood model.
The above map (figure 1, 45 km wide and 70 km long), shows the simplified geology of the area around Bendigo, which is located in the middle at the point marked G1.1
The purple area is where the gold is found. It is composed of a thick deposit made up of layers of sediment that have been folded along a north-south axis into a repeating sequence of folds. The folds in these sediments are cut by quartz veins, or ‘reefs’, containing the gold, and are mined underground by shafts from the surface. The sediments are slightly metamorphosed and have been extensively faulted, making their geological structure quite complex. These sediments have been classified as Ordovician within geological timescale on the basis of the fossils they contain.
The red area to the bottom of the map is a large granitic intrusion that was emplaced within the sediments. This has been classified as Devonian within the geological timescale.
The green at the top of the map is an area of sediments that were deposited late geologically at the southern edge of the Australian continent in a large area called the Murray Basin. These sediments were deposited on top of the gold-bearing sediments and they still mostly lie horizontal. They have been classified as Cenozoic within the geological timescale.
Rock relationshipsLet’s now look at a diagram (figure 2) that shows how the rocks of the area are related.1 From this diagram we can develop a simple geological scenario that explains the sequence of events in the area.
In figure 2, which is basically a west-east cut across the area, the gold-bearing sediments are shown as wavy layers coloured purple and blue. They are all are labelled O for Ordovician, with the different colours and the different labels representing different fossil zones.2
Originally, these layers of sediment would have been laid down horizontally. The strata have been described as turbidites,3 which represent turbulent underwater sediment flows. These are rapid deposits and modern examples have been clocked as travelling at up to 100 km per hour. Around Bendigo they consist of sandstone, siltstone and mudstone. The presence of mudstone has been interpreted as slow deposition in a low-energy environment,4 but recent laboratory experiments shows that mud can be deposited rapidly from flowing water.5
Judging from the timing of the sediments of the Great Artesian Basin,6 these turbidite sediments would have been deposited during the middle part of the first ‘half’ of the Flood. That is, it would have been as the floodwaters were rising (Ascending phase), and as enormous volumes of sediment were being carried into the ocean by the catastrophic flows of floodwaters.
After the thick sedimentary pile was deposited, still in the Ascending phase of the Flood, massive tectonic movements occurred in the crust of the earth, likely as the earth’s crust continued to adjust to the progress of the enormous Flood catastrophe. These movements folded the sediments, slightly metamorphosing them.
Also, these crustal movements melted parts of the crust generating volumes of molten rock, or magma, which pushed through cracks (feeder dikes) in the earth and accumulated within huge magma chambers in the sediment pile. As the molten magma crystallized progressively into granodiorite (a granitic rock), the melted rock became more concentrated in lower-melting-point minerals and fluids. Some of these were particularly aggressive in dissolving minerals, and had concentrated much gold in solution. These fluids eventually pushed up through cracks in the folded sediments, with the quartz crystallizing along with the gold in what are today called ‘reefs’. These quartz reefs containing gold are represented by the dotted line labelled “q” on figure 2.
As the floodwaters continued to rise, more and more sediments were deposited on the continent of what is now Australia, including the Mesozoic sediments that contain dinosaur fossils.6 These were deposited as the floodwaters were reaching their peak, during the Zenithic phase of the Flood. Such sediments were almost certainly deposited over the Bendigo area, but there is no sign of them in the area now.
After the floodwaters reached their peak, ongoing movements in the earth’s crust began to lower the ocean basins relative to the continents. The floodwaters began to recede from the continent into the ocean, and during this time they eroded much sediment that had previously been deposited. It seems that one of the major directions in which the waters flowed from the continent was to the south through the area of Victoria. This receding floodwater eroded the Mesozoic sediments especially in the Victoria region, exposed the underlying folded, gold-containing sediments and the granite pluton. Because the Ordovician sediments have been folded, you can see on figure 2 how much of these sediments have been eroded away. The final period of erosion was most likely by the receding floodwaters, although there were periods of severe erosion on sediments as the floodwaters were rising. By looking at the top level of the Ordovician sediments we can see that most erosion seems to have occurred before the final movement on the major fault, and that after this movement the top surface has remained quite uneven.
As the energy of the receding floodwaters reduced, they changed from an erosive agent to a depositional one. It was thus late in the Flood that the sediments shown as brown, yellow and green on figure 2 would have been deposited.
It was during this time, late in the Flood, when the Ordovician sediments and their reefs were being eroded, that the gold was being deposited in alluvial sediments, some of which have been called ‘deep leads’. It was this alluvial gold that was first discovered in 1851, which lead to the influx of miners into the goldfields. When the alluvial gold was mostly worked, miners turned their attention to the quartz reefs and extracted the gold from these by underground mining methods and impressive gold processing plants.
So, the geological information published in the standard geological maps and reports can be simply reinterpreted into the biblical Flood scenario based on other areas that have been already reinterpreted. One interesting aspect of such an interpretation is that the processes are connected together into a related sequence driven by the major crustal processes at work during the year-long global Flood catastrophe.
References and Notes
Wilkinson, H.E., Cherry, D.P., King, R.L., Malone, M.P., Willman, C.E., and Byrne, D.R., Bendigo, and Part of Mitiamo 1:100 000 Geological Map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1995.
Cherry, D.P., and Wilkinson, H.E., Bendigo, and Part of Mitiamo, Geological Survey of Victoria, Report 99, pp. 18–23, 1995.
Cherry and Wilkinson, ref. 2, p. 16.
Cherry and Wilkinson, ref. 2, p. 17.
Walker, T., Mud experiments overturn long-held geological beliefs: A call for a radical reappraisal of all previous interpretations of mudstone deposits, 9 January 2008.
Walker, T., The Great Artesian Basin, Australia, J. Creation 10(3):379–390, 1996.
The figure shown above is an extract from the geological map of the Sydney area area (SI 56-05) around Gosford. This area is part of the Sydney Basin, which extends from Newcastle in the north, beyond Woolongong in the south and to Katoomba in the west. The basin is the green area surrounding Sydney as shown on the image below. The darker blue on the above image (TRng) is the Gosford Formation which is at the top of the Narrabeen Group. The lighter blue Hawkesbury Sandstone (TRh) sits on top of that. These have been classified as Triassic. Small red areas (Tv) are basaltic volcanic remnants, likely eroded volcanic plugs. Yellow areas (Qa) are recent, localized sediment deposits.The Triassic sediments were deposited rapidly during Noah’s Flood as the floodwaters were rising. They display lots of evidence of the the huge water flows that were involved in their deposition at that time.
For example, the deep cuts through the sandstone along the freeway between Sydney and Newcastle show sandstone strata, multiple metres thick, with much evidence of fast-flowing water, such as cross bedds and rip-up clasts. Dr Patrick Conaghan, Senior Lecturer at the School of Earth Sciences at Macquarie University at the time, interpreted the conditions under which the sand was deposited for some of these sediments, describing a wall of water up to 20 m (65 feet) high and 250 km (150 miles) wide coming down from the north at enormous speed.
The rocks of the Gosford area are part of a larger area of geological relationships. They were deposited as part of a series of geological processes that occurred during the biblical Flood, processes that built the eastern side of continental Australia. For details of these processes see The Geological History of the Sydney area, Australia, from a Biblical Flood Perspective.
It’s a great program that goes to the heart of many issues confronting the Western World today.
In less than 100 years the once dominant Christian worldview has been gradually undermined and increasingly banished to the fringe of western culture. The Christian foundation has been replaced by godless socio-political ideologies openly hostile to belief in God and Christianity. It is incredible how this gradual transition from Christianity to godless Humanism was so seditiously and ingeniously achieved. It is truely one of the great epics of ideological warfare.
The organizers recognize the role that geological philosophy has played in changing the culture of the West, and that is why I’m presenting on geology.
My theme is “The Dating & Geological Guessing Game”, and in the presentation I’ll be showing why Genesis can be trusted. You will be amazed at the anti-biblical ideological assumptions behind geological interpretations and dating methods, and how these have affected our culture. Being informed is being equipped, and that will allow participants to respond appropriately to the challenges we see ourselves in.
There are other great presenters with time for interaction and discussion. Check the full list of speaker topics.
If you are concerned at the way things are going in your country and are looking for ways to change it, this will be a conference you won’t want to miss.
You can register on line or by phone. Find registration details toward bottom of page here.
The fragments are rounded and have been colonised by a marine micro-community. Scott Bryan, a researcher with the Queensland University of Technology has identified the pumice has carried barnacles, molluscs, anemones, bristle worms, hydroids and crabs. Algae are also growing on the pumice.
The pumice has travelled some 4,000 km from the Havre Seamount in the Kermadac Islands, which lie about 1000 km north of New Zealand. In July 2012, a volcano on that seamount erupted under the ocean, creating an enormous volume of pumice that floated on the ocean like a raft.
Soon after the eruption, a pumice raft was observed on the ocean in the area, a monstrous 500 km long and 50 km wide—about the size of Belgium. The top of the raft sat some 2 feet (0.6 m) above the water and appeared brilliant white in a spotlight, like the edge of an ice shelf.
Since the eruption, the raft has broken up and dispersed, and the pumice has travelled thousands of kilometres across the ocean.
This illustrates how a catastrophic event can produce material that will travel long distances.
It reminded me of the concept Gondwanaland.
Scientists have long recognized that the southern continents, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica and South America, have similar vegetation, referred to as Gondwana vegetation. To explain these similarities, most scientists say that the continents were once connected together into one supercontinent called Gondwanaland. During the Mesozoic this super-continent broke apart and the continental fragments carried the vegetation to different parts of the globe.
However, we can see from what happened to the pumice that there could be a simpler explanation, one that does not involve moving vast continents tens of thousands of kilometres. Instead, it simply needs to move the vegetation across the ocean.
Noah’s Flood was an unimaginably large global catastrophe, much larger than the eruption of the volcano on Havre Seamount. As a result of that catastrophe the vegetation that was growing on the pre-Flood continents was ripped up. Much of it would have floated in enormous rafts on the ocean, similar to the pumice raft, except for one big difference. The vegetation raft would have been much, much larger.
Here is the scenario. The vegetation on the southern continents is similar because similar vegetation was ripped up and floated across the southern ocean and was buried on the different continents. This vegetation was carried to the different continents, not by moving continents, but by moving ocean currents.
It’s an idea I think that’s worth exploring.
These provide an amazing glimpse of the attempts of the animals to escape the rising waters of Noah’s Flood.
The researchers, from the University of Alaska Museum of the North, found large and small footprints inside the Arctic Circle on an 800 km expedition down the Tanana and Yukon rivers. They brought back 900 kg of fosillized dinosaur footprints.
Researcher Paul McCarthy, of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, said the footprints were abundant: “We found dinosaur footprints by the scores on literally every outcrop we stopped at.” This is certainly represents unusual behaviour and unique conditions that were present at the time.
Preserved in strata classified as Cretaceous, the dino prints were described as ‘natural casts’ formed after the creatures stepped in mud, and sand filled in their footprints. Crew member Pat Druckenmiller said this resulted in fossils that look like “blobs with toes.”
It’s clear that the prints were preserved in most unusual conditions. There could not have been much time between the animal stepping in the mud and the sand filling in the depression, otherwise the print would have eroded away. And the thickness of the strata indicate that the water level was rising, allowing space for more sediment to be deposited on top.
Footprints like this are classic evidence for the Inundatory stage of Noah’s Flood, in particular the period as the waters were approaching their peak (here’s another example from China). It is clear that the animals were still alive, so the waters had not completely covered the earth. Once the earth was inundated, all land-dwelling, air-breathing animals perished.
Every living thing that moved on the earth perished—birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died. Genesis 7:21–22.